Psychosocial Nursing – Principles of Mental Health
- List the seven principles of mental health.
(1)Do no harm. (2) Accept each client as a whole person. (3)Develop mutual trust. (4) Explore behaviors and emotions (5) Encourage responsibility. (6) Encourage effective adaptation. (7) Provide consistency.
Define advocacy and explain how it applies to mental health.
Advocacy is acting on behalf of the client’s best interests; it includes providing support, feedback and resources that are necessary to make a decision. Advocacy is especially important for people with mental health disabilities because they are more often than not unable to make the best decision on their own.
What tips are suggested to maintain a positive attitude in treating the mental health client?
Pay attention to the words you use, change recurrent negative themes, be your own cheerleader by repeating upbeat and enthusiastic words to help build a feeling of success, visualize future success and growth, and act as a person with confidence and ability.
Identify and describe steps of the nursing (therapeutic) process
There are five steps to the nursing process:
- Assessment – nurse collects objective and subjective data
- Diagnosis – problems are identified in this step
- Planning – outcomes of the problems are projected
- Interventions – actions are taken to meet the goals
- Evaluation – results are compared against the expected outcomes.
Compare and contrast objective data and subjective data.
Objective data can be measured and shared, whereas subjective data cannot be measured and comes from patients. Objective data are signs, subjective data are symptoms. Objective data can be verified by repetition by others, subjective data can’t. Objective data are unbiased, subjective data is experienced by only one person. Objective data often involves numbers, whereas subjective data are often limited to the verbalization.
What guidelines should be followed when enhancing interviewing skills?
- Use professional judgment skills instead of personal values and stereotypes.
- Do not make the assumptions; instead collect objective data.
- Be considerate of the client’s cultural and religious values and beliefs.
- Remain observant and pay attention to nonverbal communications as well.
- Know the purpose of the interview so the goals are clearly set.
- Use self-awareness to monitor your won reactions during the interview.
Each therapeutic communication skill is based upon what principles?
Acceptance, interest, respect, honesty, concreteness, assistance, permission and protection.
List the methods for coping with barriers to communication.
- Recognize that the problem does exist.
- Identify what purpose or need the problem is filling.
- Explore appropriate alternative behaviors.
- Implement the alternative behaviors when interacting.
- Evaluate whether communications have improved.
- If behaviors are same, reassess and try different approach.
Give an example of non-therapeutic communication technique.
Giving reassurances can sometimes negate the feelings of client. For example, when a client says he will never get better, the caregiver simply tells him that everything will get better soon.
Explain how rapport is developed during a therapeutic relationship.
Rapport is an ability to establish a meaning communication with a client to provide therapeutic interaction. Rapport can be developed when a caregiver presents an active interest and concern for the well being of the client. Providing dignity and worth to the client with an accepting attitude is also important in this process.
Identify the phases of a therapeutic relationship
- Preparation phase – gather data, review information and plan behavior to be carried with.
- Orientation phase – develop mutual trust with the client while adhering the rules and terms.
- Maintenance phase – identify and address the problems through empathy.
- Termination phase – assist clients transfer the learning to interaction with others and feelings into constructive activity.
Describe the technical role of the nurse in a mental health setting.
The technical role of the nurse in mental health setting is to focus on the client as a whole. Nurse in this role focuses on the holistic care by including both physical and mental-emotional needs of the client. The roles include administering, monitoring and evaluating medications, managing safety and environmental factors, assessing the difference between physical and psychiatric conditions, and managing medical problems along with mental health environment.
How do caregivers assist clients in building self esteem needs in the therapeutic setting?
- Acceptance – accept the clients by separating them with their behaviors.
- Expectations – communicate what is expected while basing it on reality.
- Involvement – involve clients so that they can actively share themselves and thus foster feelings of worth.
Describe how a person with high anxiety levels during the admissions process should be approached.
Have one person perform the initial admission interview rather than the entire treatment team. This prevents stress and confusion during the beginning process.
When does the process of preparing for discharge begin for a mental illness patient?
It begins on admission. This has dramatically decreased the length of stay for mental health clients.