Psychotropic Medications, Drug Abuse and Alcohol

Examples of Psychotropic Medications, Drug Abuse and Alcohol – Pharmacology

Drug ClassificationPurposeSide EffectsContraindications
CNS Stimulant MedicationAdderallRitalinPromote CNS functioning.Treat ADD or paradoxically ADHD in children over age 6 and for narcolepsy.Treatment of senile apathy and major depression not yielding to other therapies.Nervousness, insomnia, irritability, seizures, or psychosis from overdose.Tachycardia, palpitations, HTN, cardiac arrhythmias, blurred vision, headache and dizziness.GI disturbances, including abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, anorexia and dry mouth.Closed-angle glaucoma, hyperthyroidism, cardiovascular disorders, anxiety, agitation, eating disorders, and treatment for obesity without diet and exercise modifications.
TricyclicsElavilAntidepressant. It potentiates the action of norepinephrine and serotonin activity by blocking their reuptake.Anticholinergic action.Delayed action of elevating mood and increasing alertness after few weeks. Mild sedative effect; improved sleep.Dry mouth, increase appetite, weight gain, drowsiness, blurred vision, constipation, urinary retention with BPH, postural hypotension.Cardiac arrhythmias and palpitation.Cardiac, renal, GI and liver disorders.Glaucoma.Obesity.Seizure disorder; older adults with high risk for falls.
MAOIsNardilAntidepressant. Increase concentration of norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine by inhibiting MAO enzyme.Reserved for refractory or atypical depressions or those associated with panic disorders or phobias.HTN, nervousness, agitation, insomnia, headache, stiff neck, chest pain, tachycardia, palpitation, blurred vision and GI disturbances such as N&V.Cerebrovascular, heart, liver and renal disorders.Children under 16 years age.Abrupt discontinuation,Undergoing elective surgery requiring anesthesia.Excessive consumption of caffeine.
SSRIs Serotonin Reuptak InhibitorsZoloftProzacEffexorAntidepressant – first line of medications.Block reabsorption of the neurotransmitter serotonin, helping to restore brain’s chemical balance.Sexual dysfunction, insomnia, anxiety, nervousness, sweating, tremor, fatigue and headache.Nausea, anorexia, and diarrhea.Dose related HTN.Liver and renal impairments.Suicide prone and bipolar disorders.Diabetes, underweight and eating disorders.
Heterocyclics drugsWellbutrinAntidepressant.Activating antidepressant; treatment of severe depression caused by fatigue, lethargy and psychomotor retardation. Reduce relapse rates in those who are quitting smoking.Calming antidepressant; treatment of agitated depression, mixed anxiety and depression, and fibromyalgia.Drowsiness, dry mouth and nausea.Dizziness and confusion.Insomnia, restlessness, agitation and anxiety.Weight gain.Priapism or impotence.Suicide prone.Seizure disorder.Cardiac or liver disorders.
Antimaniac MedsLithiumDepakoteTreatment of acute manic episodes and maintenance of remission in bipolar disorders (inhibits relapse of dopamine and norepinephrine, but not serotonin).Prevent future episodes.Depakote is an anticonvulsant valporate that is used in mood stabilization.GI distress. Thirst and polyuria.Cardiac arrhythmias and hypotension.Lethargy, slurred speech, tremors and muscle weakness.Thyroid problems.Sever toxic and can cause CNS, renal and pulmonary problems.Renal and cardiac disease.History of leukemia. Fever.Metabolic disorders; sodium depletion. Dehydration and diuretic use.Suicidal and impulsive patients.
Antianxiety MedicationAtivanXanaxValiumShort-term treatment of anxiety disorders, neurosis for psychotherapy, some psychosomatic disorders and insomnia, and nausea and vomiting.Muscle relaxants, anticonvulsants and preoperatively.Reduce anxiety and promote relaxation without sedation effect when given in small dose.Depression, hallucinations, confusion, amnesia, bizarre behavior and agitation.Drowsiness, headache and lethargy.Sensitivity to sunlight, rash and itching.Tremor, ataxia, and extrapyramidal reactions.Suicidal tendencies.Liver or kidney dysfunction.Operating machinery.Comatose patients.Preexisting CNS depression.Uncontrolled sever pain.Some contain alcohol.
Antipsychotic MedicationsThorazineHaldolMellarilZyprexaRelieve symptoms of psychoses and sever neuroses, including delusions, agitation, hallucinations, and combativeness.Relieving nausea and vomiting.Potentiation of analgesics.Blocks dopamine receptors (anticholinergic action to some extent).Postural hypotension, tachycardia, bradycardia and vertigo.Insomnia, headache, depression, agitation, confusion, drowsiness, restlessness, weakness, and seizure.Blurred vision, dry mouth, fever, jaundice, rash, and photosensitivity.Constipation, urinary retentions, and anorexia.Parkinsonian symptoms, tardive dyskinesia, dystonic reactions (spasms of neck, head, or tongue) and akathisia (motor restlessness).Seizure disorders.Parkinsonian syndrome.Cerebral vascular disease.Severe depression.Blood dyscrasias.CNS depression, circulatory collapse could occur.Bone marrow depression.Liver or cardiovascular disorders.

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